GLWF 2017 - Mediterranean
Slovenia, Italy, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria, Spain, Libya, Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Serbia, Croatia, France, Slovakia, Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania
We have collected data on carbon black across the Mediterranean, from Cyprus to southern Spain, and we have observed the spreading of desert dust in the north all the way to Paris. Preliminary checks of the collected data have showed that not only does the Saharan dust spread along the Mediterranean and reach the Alps, but in right weather conditions it also reaches northern Europe, settles on snow and ice in the Alps and it increases airborne particle concentration.
Interestingly, the data show that the Saharan dust is mixed with black carbon. It must be investigated, how this affects climate and where the sources of air pollution with black carbon are. The answer to this question can be found through a detailed analysis and the combination of air and ground measurements that can differentiate between the Saharan dust and the small aerosols of black carbon, and that can determine their properties. Alongside air measurements, these measurements were performed in Cyprus in collaboration with the local scientists.
GLWF 2016 - World Flight
Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Cape Verde, Martinique, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos, Bahamas, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, Hawaii, Marshall
Islands, Micronesia, Guam, Philippines, Borneo, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Oman, United Arab Emirates,
Qatar, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Croatia.
We encountered new areas with extremely high black carbon concentrations above parts of the developed world, such as the Gulf of Mexico coast. Measured concentrations indicate that the pollution above this area is most probably caused by oil extraction and refining. Industrial emissions and air pollution from this source were successfully reduced in Europe, and this is one of the greater achievements in decreasing environmental pollution. Therefore, we tend to forget that industry can be an important source of pollution in the developed world.
GLWF 2013 - North Pole
Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Canada, Ireland, England, France, Italy
Black carbon concentrations above the Arctic were very low as we anticipated, since the areas are far from all sources of pollution. We nevertheless identified a well-defined area of pollution during the flight to the North Pole. The concentrations increased up to the values expected on the ground in cities. The calculated back-trajectories show the source of this black carbon are industrial activities around Norilsk, and oil extraction and refining. Oil extraction is accompanied by flaring, and this is the largest source of black carbon pollution above the Arctic.
GLWF 2012 - World Flight
Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Brazil, French Guiana, Suriname, Puerto Rico, the Caribbean, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, California, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama , Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Antarctica, French Polynesia, New Zealand, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Seychelles, Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Congo, Central African Republic , Chad, Niger, Libya, Tunisia.
The GLWF 2012 flight concluded very successfully, as we gathered a vast amount of data. We pushed our instruments to their limits – we were measuring concentrations from a few ng/m. (ng/m. is nanogram per cubic meter, a billionth of a gram of black carbon in one cubic meter of air) above oceans to several thousand ng/m. above inhabited areas. Some high concentrations of black carbon were in certain cases probably a consequence of slash-and-burn agricultural techniques, for example above Malaysia and the Congo River. We measured increased black carbon concentrations above South-East Asia, with an extremely interesting event above the Thailand-Myanmar border where we measured a big increase in concentrations.